Database Management System (DBMS)

A database management system (DBMS) is a software package designed to define, manipulate, retrieve and manage data in a database. A DBMS generally manipulates the data itself, the data format, field names, record structure and file structure. It also defines rules to validate and manipulate this data.

A DBMS relieves users of framing programs for data maintenance. Fourth-generation query languages, such as SQL, are used along with the DBMS package to interact with a database.

Some other DBMS examples include:

DBMS

  • MySQL
  • SQL Server
  • Oracle
  • dBASE
  • FoxPro
  • Why Learn DBMS

    DBMS

    Traditionally, data was organized in file formats. DBMS was a new concept then, and all the research was done to make it overcome the deficiencies in traditional style of data management. A modern DBMS has the following characteristics :

    Real-world entity

    A modern DBMS is more realistic and uses real-world entities to design its architecture. It uses the behavior and attributes too. For example, a school database may use students as an entity and their age as an attribute.

    Relation-based tables

    DBMS allows entities and relations among them to form tables. A user can understand the architecture of a database just by looking at the table names.

    Isolation of data and application

    A database system is entirely different than its data. A database is an active entity, whereas data is said to be passive, on which the database works and organizes. DBMS also stores metadata, which is data about data, to ease its own process.

    Less redundancy

    DBMS follows the rules of normalization, which splits a relation when any of its attributes is having redundancy in values. Normalization is a mathematically rich and scientific process that reduces data redundancy.

    Consistency

    Consistency is a state where every relation in a database remains consistent. There exist methods and techniques, which can detect attempt of leaving database in inconsistent state. A DBMS can provide greater consistency as compared to earlier forms of data storing applications like file-processing systems.

    Query Language

    DBMS is equipped with query language, which makes it more efficient to retrieve and manipulate data. A user can apply as many and as different filtering options as required to retrieve a set of data. Traditionally it was not possible where file-processing system was used.

    Divinfosys Explains DBMS

    DBMS

    File System manages data using files in hard disk. Users are allowed to create, delete, and update the files according to their requirement. Let us consider the example of file based University Management System. Data of students is available to their respective Departments, Academics Section, Result Section, Accounts Section, Hostel Office etc. Some of the data is common for all sections like Roll No, Name, Father Name, Address and Phone number of students but some data is available to a particular section only like Hostel allotment number which is a part of hostel office. Let us discuss the issues with this system:

    Redundancy of Data

    Data is said to be redundant if same data is copied at many places. If a student wants to change Phone number, he has to get it updated at various sections. Similarly, old records must be deleted from all sections representing that student.

    Inconsistency of Data

    Data is said to be inconsistent if multiple copies of same data does not match with each other. If Phone number is different in Accounts Section and Academics Section, it will be inconsistent. Inconsistency may be because of typing errors or not updating all copies of same data.

    Difficult Data Access:

    A user should know the exact location of file to access data, so the process is very cumbersome and tedious. If user wants to search student hostel allotment number of a student from 10000 unsorted students’ records, how difficult it can be.

    Unauthorized Access

    File System may lead to unauthorized access to data. If a student gets access to file having his marks, he can change it in unauthorized way.

    No Concurrent Access

    The access of same data by multiple users at same time is known as concurrency. File system does not allow concurrency as data can be accessed by only one user at a time.

    No Backup and Recovery

    File system does not incorporate any backup and recovery of data if a file is lost or corrupted.

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